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NIMULID-SP is a fixed dose combination (FDC) of Nimesulide and Serratiopeptidase. Nimesulide is chemically 4-Nitro-2-phenoxymethane sulphonanilide and Serratiopeptidase is proteolytic enzyme. Nimulid-SP is grey-yellow, size "2" hard gelatin capsule containing light-yellow coloured granular powder.
Each hard gelatin capsule contains:
(equivalent to enzyme activity 30,000 units, as enteric coated granules)
The anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities of Nimesulide, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) of the sulfonanilide class, have been demonstrated in a number of experimental models and in numerous clinical trials1.
Nimesulide appears to exert its therapeutic effects through a variety of mechanisms viz :2
Selective cyclooxygenase 2 inhibitor
Inhibition of generation of superoxide anions from stimulated polymorphonuclear leucocytes.
Inhibition of platelet activating factor synthesis
Prevention of Bradykinin/Cytokine induced hyperalgesia of nerves (Inhibiting release of TNF-a )
Scavenging of hypochlorous acid
Blocking of histamine release
Prevention of cartilage damage by inhibition of metalloprotease synthesis
Phosphodiesterase type IV inhibition.
Serratiopeptidase is a proteolytic enzyme available for clinical use more than a decade. It binds to alpha-2-macroglobulin in the blood in the ratio of 1:1 which helps to mask its antigenicity but retains its enzymatic activity and is slowly, transferred to site of inflammation. Serratiopeptidase hydrolyses bradykinin, histamine and serotonin responsible for oedematic status5. It reduces swelling improves microcirculation & expectoration of sputum etc. Thus it can be concluded that serratiopeptidase has anti-inflammatory, anti-oedemic and fibrinolytic activity and acts rapidly on localized inflammation6.
Various painful inflammatory conditions including those associated with osteoarthritis, post operative trauma, sports injuries, bronchitis, sinusitis etc are improved with Nimesulide. Nimesulide is a potent and time tested NSAID and its spectrum of activity is improved by Serratiopeptidase, as Serratiopeptidase exhibits following activities:
Antiinflammatory and antiswelling:
Inhibition of vascular permeability due to scald or injury
Inhibition of inflammatory edema due to carrageenin, serotonin, bradykinin
Excellent decomposability of bradykinin
Strong decomposability of fibrin
No effects of alpha-, beta-globulin and albumin
Action to promote the lysis and discharge of sputum and pus:
Decreased pus and viscosity in patients with chronic sinusitis.
Decreased sputum and viscosity in patients with subacute bronchitis.
Action to promote transfer of antibiotics to the focal site:
It can promote the transfer of ampicillin and sulbenicillin to the palate of patients with chronic sinusitis.
Hence, it can be said that Nimesulide and Serratiopeptidase show synergistic potential which is one of the most important factor in deciding the feasibility of a FDC.
After oral administration of Nimesulide 50 to 200 mg to healthy adult volunteers, peak serum concentrations of 1.98 to 9.85 mg/L are achieved within 1.22 to 3.17 hours. Oral drug absorption is nearly complete and concomitant administration of food may decrease the rate, but not the extent, of absorption of Nimesulide. The drug is extensively bound (99%) to plasma proteins and has an estimated apparent volume of distribution of 0.19 to 0.35 L/kg following oral administration. Nimesulide is extensively metabolised (1 to 3% of a dose is excreted unchanged in the urine) to several metabolites which are excreted mainly in the urine (? 70%) or the faeces (? 20%). The drug is almost completely biotransformed into 4-Hydroxy-Nimesulide in both free and conjugated forms and this metabolite appears to contribute to the anti-inflammatory activity of the compound. Peak concentrations of 4-Hydroxy-Nimesulide ranged from 0.84 to 3.03 mg/L and were attained within 2.61 to 5.33 hours after oral administration of Nimesulide 50 to 200 mg to healthy adult volunteers. The elimination half-life of 4-Hydroxy-Nimesulide ranges from 2.89 to 4.78 hours and is generally similar to or slightly higher than that of the parent compound (1.56 to 4.95 h).
The pharmacokinetic profile of Nimesulide is not significantly altered in children, elderly volunteers and patients with moderately impaired renal function [creatinine clearance 1.8 to 4.8 L/h (30 to 80 ml/min)]. Slight accumulation of 4-Hydroxy-Nimesulide was noted in patients with moderate renal impairment; however, the clinical significance of this finding is unknown.
Serratiopeptidase when consumed in unprotected form is destroyed by acid in the stomach. However, enteric coated granules, enable the enzyme to pass through the stomach unchanged, and be absorbed in the intestine. It is found negligibly in urine suggesting that it is transported directly from the intestine into the blood stream.
Nimulid - SP is indicated in conditions like:
Trauma Surgery: In sports injuries, sprains, laceration, fractures, dislocation and osteoarthritis etc. It reduces inflammation and pain thus helps faster healing and repair.
Surgery: Reduces Post Operative Edema at injection sites. Reduces internal tissue edema and inflammation caused at post-operative handling. Reduction in edema reduces chances of rupture at tissue site as well as risk of graft rejection along with reduction in pain .
Plastic Surgery: Reduces Post Operative Edema and restores micro-circulation at the site of graft rejection.
Respiratory Medicine: Breaks down complex sputum molecules in smaller peptides with lower viscosity, helping in expectorating them more easily. Reduced viscosity of secretion helps in better antibiotic penetration to enable control over stubborn infections like bronchitis, lung abscess and bronchectasis. Nimesulide helps in controlling pain and inflammation.
Infections: Mucolytic activity in sinuses, ear cavities and anti-inflammatory activity in upper respiratory tract organs help in faster resolution, better antibiotic bioavailability and faster cure rates.
Dermatology: Used in acute painful inflamed dermatoses.
Dentistry: Helps better control over dental infections and inflammation.
Obstetrics & Gyneacology: The anti-inflammatory activity helps in resolution of post-partum haematomas, breast engorgements and pregnancy-related thrombophlebitis.
Hypersensitivity to Nimesulide and Serratiopeptidase. Nimulid-SP is contraindicated in patients of active peptic ulcer disease, moderate to severe hepatic impairment, severe renal failure and with blood coagulation disorders.
Usage in pregnancy and nursing mothers : No well controlled studies are available regarding the use of nimesulide or Serratiopeptidase in pregnancy and lactation. Avoid the use of Nimulid - SP in such cases.
Usage in children : Safety and efficacy of Nimesulide in children is well established. Experience with Serratiopeptidase in children is not available.
Nimesulide - The most common adverse reactions are gastrointestinal disturbances (epigastralgia, heart burns, nausea, diarrhoea and vomiting). Dermatological reactions include rash and pruritus; central nervous system associated side effects are dizziness, somnolence and headache. Occasionally, excessive perspiration, flushing, hyperexcitability and sleep disorders have been reported. Rarely, a rise in liver enzyme levels have also been reported.
Serratiopeptidase - Hypersensitivity reactions, such as rash or redness, may infrequently occur. If such reactions occur, Nimulid-SP should be discontinued.
Gastrointestinal: Anorexia, gastric discomfort, nausea or vomiting may infrequently occur. These can be minimised if the tablets are taken after meals.
Nimesulide: Due to the extensive plasma protein binding Nimesulide may be displaced from the binding site by concurrent administration of Fenofibrate, Salicylic acid, Valproic acid and Tolbutamide. Moreover, Nimesulide may displace Salicylic acid, Methotrexate and Furosemide from binding sites. Nimesulide reduced the diuretic effect for concomitantly administered Furosemide. Although Nimesulide does not appear to interact with Warfarin, in clinical practice, interaction with oral anticoagulants or other highly protein bound drugs cannot be ruled out. Nimesulide may cause enzymatic induction of Theophylline when administered concomitantly with it. Nimesulide had no significant effect on fasting blood and glucose tolerance in patients treated with anitdiabetic agents.
Serratiopeptidase: With anticoagulative agents, it may increase anticoagulative effect and therefore Nimulid-SP must not be used in such patients.
Overdosage and Treatment
No data is available on overdosage toxicity. In the event of an overdosage the stomach may be emptied and symptomatic treatment should be given.
Dosage and Administration
1 capsule, 2 - 3 times daily after meals. Dose to be adjusted according to age or symptoms or as directed by the physician.
Store at a temperature below 25?C, protect from light and moisture.
Available in blister strips of 10 x 10's capsules'.
Davis R and Brogden RN. Nimesulide: An update of its pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties, and therapeutic efficacy. Drugs 1994; 48(3) : 431-454.
Tognella S. Nimesulide : New clinical opportunities. Drugs 1993; 46 (Suppl 1) : 275 - 276.
Ward A and Brogden RN. Nimesulide : A preliminary Review of its pharmacological properties and Therapeutic efficacy in inflammation and pain states. Drugs 1988;36 : 732 - 753.
Insel PA. Analgesic - Antipyretic and Antiinflammatory agents and drugs employed in the treatment of gout, cited in, Goodman & Gillman's .The pharmacological basis of therapeutics 1996; 9th ed.: 617-657.
Sharma AK. Correspondence, A Preliminary trial of Serratiopeptidase in patients with Carpal Tunnel Syndrome. JAPI 2000; 48 (11): 1130.
Mazzone A, Catalani M, Costanzo M et al. Evaluation of serratia peptidase in acute or chronic inflammation of ortorhinolaryngology pathology: a multicentric, double- blind, randomised trial versus placebo. J Int Med Res 1990; 18(5): 379 - 88.
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